# English Questions – Cloze Test 225

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Philosophical realism **(1) **an absolute notion of truth. Somewhere in a big imaginary book is a list of all truths. To be a truth just means to be in the list. As the list is infinite, we human beings don’t have direct access to it but have to proceed on the basis of **(2)** for truth.

In the best of cases, such evidence amounts to a proof, or **(3)** in the sense of logic and mathematics. The list is not affected by what we happen to have proved; it’s at most worth a **(4)** remark: This truth was even proved by human beings. By the 1920s, especially under the influence of Ludwig Wittgenstein, the view of logical truths as tautologies emerged.

A tautology is a logical sentence that is true under all possible circumstances, or true by virtue of its **(5)** . Wittgenstein listed in his little book Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, originally just the German “Logisch-Philosophische Abhandlung,” a number of logical **(6)** , from 1 (the world is all that is the case) to 7 (what one cannot speak about, on that one must be silent). One maxim is **(7)** tautologies stand on their own feet, so to say; there is no need for a concept of inference from other tautologies or **(8)** : One can always conceive logic in such a way that every theorem is its own proof. The notion of a tautology can be used in place **(9)** the axioms and inferences from them; inference is **(10)** completely absent from the Tractatus.

- 1) dictates

2) appeal

3) requisition

4) recourse - 1) evidence

2) begging

3) solicitation

4) contradiction - 1) entreaty

2) disproof

3) inference

4) tangibility - 1) desire

2) inquiry

3) refutation

4) marginal - 1) for

2) to

3) form

4) of - 1) ambiguity

2) concreteness

3) maxims

4) verisimilitude - 1) that

2) whom

3) which

4) who - 1) questionably

2) dubitably

3) assumptions

4) substantive - 1) in

2) of

3) for

4) to - 1) corporeality

2) doubtedly

3) indeed

4) solidity

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