English Questions: Inference Set 1

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Inference

Directions (Q. 1-10): In each of the given questions an inference is given in bold which is then followed by three paragraph. You have to find the paragraph(s) from where it is inferred. Choose the option with the best possible outcome as your choice.

  1. Inference – A Popular Leader
    I. Despite allegations of a rigged election in Pakistan in which the army is said to have enabled Mr. Khan’s victory, it is widely recognised that there was a major groundswell of support for him.
    II. The interlude between the general elections in Pakistan and India is a period of extreme caution and careful domestic calculations, and hence not conducive for bold foreign policy initiatives, especially on something as fraught as India-Pakistan relations.
    III. The fact that his PTI left the rival Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) far behind in terms of seat share, and that the PTI, until recently a provincial party, made stunning inroads in all of Pakistan’s provinces shows that the big story is also the rise of a charismatic Pakistani political leader seen as incorruptible and visionary by young voters.
    1. I , II
    2. II
    3. I , III
    4. III
    5. All are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer : 3)
    Explanation:
    Option 3 is correct as II states nothing about Mr. Khan
  2. Inference – A material basis for unity
    I. Mere anti-BJP-ism or anti-Modi-ism is just not good enough — either to hold the Opposition together, or to defeat the BJP in 2019. To stand a fighting chance of achieving either, the alliance must address a genuine political need gap, and in the current juncture, the most obvious one is the absence of a platform at the national level for constituencies whose interests cannot be seriously represented by the BJP, given the constraints of the politics it espouses.
    II. These constituencies are the social and geographical inverse of the BJP’s core electoral base, which consists of the savarnas (forward castes) and the urban middle and upper classes, primarily from the Hindi-speaking belt.
    III. The idea seems to be to hammer away at his failures and hope that anti-incumbency does the rest.
    1. I , II
    2. III
    3. II
    4. I
    5. All are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer : 1)
    Explanation:
    Option 1 is correct as III does not connect with other two lines.
  3. Inference – The strategy of containment
    I. When a constitutional challenge pits individuals against the state, the court’s task is clear: if it finds that there has been a breach by the state, it must strike down the offending law (or rules), and vindicate the rights at issue.
    II. When, however, the court is called upon to settle a battle in the culture wars, the task is fraught with greater complexity. This is because these conflicts often represent deep, long-standing and irreconcilable divisions in society, touching issues of personal belief and conviction.
    III. Constitutional documents often consciously refrain from directly addressing them: for example, the framers of the Constitution deliberately placed the provision for a uniform civil code in the unenforceable “Directive Principles” chapter, thinking that it was too divisive to be made a fundamental right.
    1. II
    2. I , II
    3. III
    4. I , III
    5. All are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer : 5)
    Explanation:
    Option 5 is suitable.
  4. Inference – Reframing the Right
    I. It is not often that nine judges of the Supreme Court assemble and pronounce a unanimous judgment without dissent. The promise of such a holding becomes more critical when it concerns the liberty of individuals and an attempt to correct an imbalance of power which exists against them. This is why the right to privacy judgment was celebrated last year. It signified hope that things could get better, that values of freedom, autonomy and dignity would be realised.
    II. It is the report’s approach to rights that is perhaps of most concern for the health of our democracy. Its statement that rights are not “deontological categories” is both unnecessarily complicated in its wording and patently untrue in its content.
    III. Our fundamental rights, whether to speech, equality or practice our religion or profession, are all essential facets that make life worth living and are held up by the right to privacy with regard to information about us. In stating that rights are not things which are essential in themselves is an unacceptable position to take under our Constitution.
    1. II , III
    2. I
    3. I , III
    4. II
    5. All are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer : 2)
    Explanation:
    Option 2 is correct as II , III does not talk about the inference.
  5. Inference – Roots of the Process
    I. The recent history of the NRC can be traced to the public interest litigation filed in the Supreme Court by Assam Public Works seeking the removal of “illegal voters” from the electoral rolls of Assam and the preparation of the NRC as required under the Citizenship Act, 1955 and its rules.
    II. The NRC was supposed to be prepared as a consequence of the Assam Accord signed between the Union government and the All-Assam Students’ Union to end the agitation against “outsiders”, promising to identify and remove any foreigners from Assam who had entered the State after 1971.
    III. Although political leaders and the Supreme Court itself have assured everyone that this is only a draft and everyone will be given an opportunity to prove his or her citizenship in accordance with the law before any “action” is taken, this is unlikely to inspire much confidence given what has transpired thus far.
    1. III
    2. II , III
    3. I , II , III
    4. I , II
    5. All are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer : 4)
    Explanation:
    Option 4 is correct as III states other inference from other two sentences.
  6. Inference – Lost interpretation
    I. Widespread condemnation of his refusal to endorse the findings of U.S. intelligence agencies has compelled him to walk back his statements at Helsinki. Yet, critics of the President conveniently forget that it was only 15 years ago that these same intelligence agencies fraudulently claimed that Iraq’s Saddam Hussain had weapons of mass destruction.
    II. Of course, whether Mr. Trump should have gone to Helsinki to meet Mr. Putin at all amidst these allegations is another issue. Perhaps the closest parallel was the 1960 Paris summit between the leaders of France, the U.K., the U.S. and the USSR after the U.S. had lied that its spy plane that had been shot down over the USSR had been a weather plane. Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev’s outburst there against U.S. President Dwight Eisenhower led to a collapse of the summit.
    III. Two further points are lost in the firestorm of protests over the press conference. First, there is no instance that I can recall when journalists have accused one president — especially a President of a state as large and powerful as Russia — of interfering in the elections of another country in a joint press conference between the two Presidents. In joint press conferences, one head of government is not typically called on to label the other head of government a liar. Rather than discussing global issues, ranging from nuclear disarmament to conflicts in Syria and the Ukraine, journalists were focussed on a domestic issue in the U.S.
    1. II , III
    2. I
    3. I , III
    4. II
    5. All are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer : 1)
    Explanation:
    Option 1 is correct as it does not relate with other sentences.
  7. Inference – The China Question
    I. Yet another angle that needs to be factored in while engaging Naya Pakistan is the rising regional influence of China and the further strengthening of China-Pakistan ties.
    II. Both the Pakistan army and the political class in Pakistan are upbeat about the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and Chinese investments in Pakistan, notwithstanding Mr. Khan’s initial reservations about China.
    III. Can this new-found civil-military equation in Pakistan withstand the force of Mr. Khan’s personality traits and Pakistan’s political dynamics in the days ahead?
    1. II , III
    2. I
    3. I , II
    4. III
    5. All are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer : 3)
    Explanation:
    Option 3 is correct as III does not talk about China.
  8. Inference – Attitude to Time
    I. An Indian Edmund Burke is unthinkable. Beyond its corrosive communalism, the BJP has no idea of the right as a systematic ideology. The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh’s idea of capitalism is adequate.
    II. Oddly, for all its fetishisation of 2019, the BJP is one party that has no systemic idea of the future. It might borrow a few glib ideas such as smart cities, yet it has no sense of the future as a set of strategies. The fetishisation of 2019 has to be understood in this context — 2019 is its end of history thesis.
    III. It has no sense of the future except of the NRI who combines modern consumerism with ancient history. The future is 2019 repeated.
    The attitude to time is best caught in the complete absence of ecological thinking. It is content with linear time and progress. It dissolves the Planning Commission not because it was a Congress idea but because it was a futurist notion.
    1. I , II
    2. III
    3. I
    4. II , III
    5. All are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer : 4)
    Explanation:
    Option 4 is correct as it does not connect with other sentences.
  9. Inference – The Trump Road Map
    I. The cornerstone of Mr. Trump’s West Asia policy, as it appears, is Israel’s security, and the containment of Iran is a subplot of this approach. America’s traditional allies, Israel and the Sunni Arab world (read Saudi Arabia), were upset with Mr. Obama’s outreach to Iran.
    II. His approach was focussed on restoring some balance in the region, which was shaken up by revolts in the Arab world and civil wars. The Obama administration could persuade Iran to give up its nuclear ambitions in return for the lifting of international sanctions.
    III. The 2015 nuclear deal with Iran had at least opened new avenues for both Washington and Tehran to reimagine their relations. Those avenues have been closed, at least for now.
    1. I , II
    2. III
    3. I
    4. II , III
    5. All are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer : 5)
    Explanation:
    Option 5 is correct.
  10. Inference – Strong Leaders
    I. Strong leadership and summit diplomacy do not necessarily translate into appropriate responses. Mr. Trump, hardly constrained by diplomatic etiquette, firmly believes in the aphorism, ‘what starts with him changes the world’. He hardly ever debates the question, ‘what will the world look like after you change it?’
    II. Summit styles are personal to each leader. One common feature, however, is that Foreign Office mandarins and ministers in charge of foreign affairs are being pushed into the background. Nuanced negotiating stances are no longer the flavour of diplomatic intercourse.
    III. Mr. Putin is less mercurial than Mr. Trump. He is, nevertheless, unflinching in his belief that he has the answers to Russia’s problems, and how to take Russia from the low point of the Yelstin years to future glory. Having established an entente with China, he is now intent on raising Russia’s stakes in Europe by confronting the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), and also hopes to establish itself as a key player in Eurasia.
    1. I , III
    2. II
    3. II , II
    4. I
    5. All are correct
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer : 1)
    Explanation:
    Option 1 is correct as II states about summit