English Questions – Reading Comprehension Set 61
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Directions (Q.1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain parts are given in bold to answer some of the questions based on the passage.
The task which Gandhiji undertook was not only the achievement of political freedom but also the establishment of a social order based on truth and non violence, unity and peace, equality and universal brotherhood, and maximum freedom for all. This unfinished part of his experiment was perhaps more difficult to achieve than the achievement of political freedom. Political struggle involved fight against a foreign power and all one do was either join it or wish it’s success. In establishing social order of this pattern, there was lively possibility of a conflict arising between groups and classes, of our own people. Experience shows that man values his possessions even more than his life because in the former he sees the means for perpetuation and survival of his descendants even after his body is reduced to ashes. A new order cannot be established without radically changing the mind and attitude of men towards property and at some stage or the other, the ‘haves’ have to yield place to ‘have-nots’. We have seen, in our time, attempts to achieve a kind of egalitarian society and a picture of it after it was achieved. But this was done, by and large, through the use of physical force.
In the ultimate analysis, it is difficult, if not impossible to say that the instinct to possess has been rooted out or that it will not reappear in an even worse form under a different guise. It may even be that, like a has kept confined within containers under great pressure, or water held by a big fan, once a barrier breaks the reaction will one day sweep back with a violence equal in extent and intensity to what was used to establish and maintain the outward egalitarian form. This enforced egalitarianism consists, in its own bosom, the seed of its own destruction. The root cause of class conflict is possessiveness or the acquisitive instance. So long as the ideal that is to be achieved is one of securing the maximum material satisfaction, possessiveness can neither be suppressed nor eliminated but will grow on what it feeds. Nor will it Will cease to be such – it is possessiveness, still, whether it is confined to only a few it is shared by many. If egalitarianism bis to be ensured, it has to be based on not on the possession of the maximum material goods by a few or by all but on voluntary, enlightened renunciation of those goods which cannot be shared by others or can be enjoyed only at the expense of theirs. This calls for substitution of spiritual values that is sometimes equated with progress these days, neither spells peace nor progress. Mahatma Gandhi has shown us how the acquisitive instinct inherent in man could be transmuted by the adoption of the ideal of trusteeship by which the wealthy people would be the trustees of trusts that looked after the welfare of the people in general.
- Select the most appropriate option to complete the given sentence. Gandhi aimed at…..
1. achieving political freedom
2. establishing a non violent society
3. universal brotherhood
4. Both 1 and 2
5. 1,2 and 3
- Egalitarianism means
2. social and political equality
- In the context of the passage, which of the following statements is false ?
1. the instinct of possession causes conflicts
2. the instinct of possession cannot be rooted out completely
3. satisfaction of material needs cannot earn peace and progress
4. conflicts between groups and classes are bound to arise.
5. voluntary renunciation is the key
- Which one of the following is the most similar in meaning to the word “GUISE” ?
- According to the passage, people ultimately overturn the form a social order which
1. is based on coercion and oppression
2. does satisfy their basic needs
3. is based on conciliation and rapprochement
4. is not congenial to the spiritual values of the people
5. is brought about by foreign powers
- According to the passage which of the following statements is not true ?
1. a social order based on truth and non violence can help the achievement of maximum freedom for all
2. in establishing the social order of Gandhiji’s pattern, the possibility of a conflict between different classes hardly exists
3. it is difficult to change the mind of people towards property
4. in an egalitarian society, material satisfaction can be enjoyed only at the expense of others.
5. the root cause of class conflict is possessiveness
- In the context of the passage, what is meant by the adoption of ideal of trusteeship ?
1. to equate peace and progress with material satisfaction
2. ideal for the benefit of the society
3. the privileged class voluntarily renounces the possessive instincts
4. substitution of spiritual values by material values by those who live in the paradise of material satisfaction
5. welfare of people looked after by the wealthy class.
- What can you infer from the phrase “root out” ?
1. to destroy something
2. instill something
3. find and remove something/ someone
4. to flatten something
5. Both 2 and 3
- What is the broad meaning of- ‘haves’ have to yield place to to the ‘have-nots’ ?
1. principles of Mahatma Gandhi needs to replace existing ones
2. foreign powers influencing decisions inside needs to be defeated
3. wealthy class have to renounce all their wealth
4. wealthy people have to contribute for progress of society
5. elimination of possessive instinct
- Choose the most appropriate title for the passage
1. Material values v/s Spiritual values
2. Class conflicts in an egalitarian society
3. The Gandhiji’s vision of social order
4. the renunciation of possessive instinct
5. Political and social freedom