Welcome to Online English Section with explanation in Affairs Cloud.com. Here we are creating question sample in sentence fillers, which is BASED ON Bank EXAMS 2018 !!!
Directions (Q.1-10): In each of the following questions a short passage is given with one of the lines in the passage missing and represented by a blank. Select the best out of the five answer choices given, to make the passage complete and coherent (coherent means logically complete and sound).
- Given the vast amounts of personal data being collected by private companies and state agencies, and their flow across national jurisdictions, the absence of a data protection legal framework in India has been a cause for deep concern. ________________ The need for legislation was also underlined last year with the landmark judgment in Justice K.S Puttaswamy v. Union of India that held the right to privacy to be a fundamental right. Against this backdrop, the draft legislation on data protection submitted by a committee of experts chaired by Justice B.N. Srikrishna to the Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology after year-long public consultations provides a sound foundation on which to speedily build India’s legal framework.
1. This is akin to a contractual relationship that places obligations on the entities entrusted with data and who are obligated to seek the consent of the “principal” for the use of personal information.
2. It seeks to codify the relationship between individuals and firms/state institutions .
3. This is even more so because in many cases individuals whose data have been used and processed by agencies, both private firms and state entities, are oblivious to the purpose for which they are being harnessed.
4. The draft legislation puts the onus on the “data fiduciary” to seek clear, informed, specific and free consent.
5. There can be an issue with the possibility of withdrawal of data of the “principal” to allow for the use and processing of “sensitive personal data”.
- The intensity of competition has steadily increased since the entry of Reliance Jio, founded by the deep-pocketed billionaire Mukesh Ambani. This has left the incumbents battling furiously to protect their turf with tariff reductions to match the newcomer’s ‘no prisoners’ approach to pricing of its voice and data services. The telecom regulator’s September decision to more than halve the fee that operators pay on cross-network calls has only added to their woes, resulting in a steep and continuing erosion in average revenues per user and margins. _______________________ With about 430 million subscribers, Vodafone Idea would vault past Bharti Airtel’s current India customer base of about 345 million to the top of the heap. But this scale that they gain would ultimately count for little if the combine fails to staunch customer losses, and do that without compromising on the business’s viability.
1. The managements of Vodafone and Idea have repeatedly underscored the competitive challenges facing them, with both operators losing customers and the latter awash in red ink.
2. The cost of bidding for fresh wireless spectrum is escalating steadily and mobile number portability has made it easier for customers to switch networks.
3. The combine will therefore need more than just a few smart ‘ideas’, as Idea Cellular’s erstwhile marketing campaign used to stress, to make a fist of their merger.
4. Vodafone Idea Ltd. — as the new business will be called — ought to be happy with the way things have panned out. But the situation on the ground is far from ideal.
5. This consolidation, from the wave of mergers and acquisitions over the last couple of years, was the gain the companies left standing were hoping for.
- Indian banks trying to sell their troubled assets now have one less hurdle to cross. A group of banks, including public sector, private sector and foreign banks, signed an intercreditor agreement on Monday to push for the speedy resolution of non-performing loans on their balance sheets. According to the agreement, a majority representing two-thirds of the loans within a consortium of lenders should now be sufficient to override any objection to the resolution process coming from dissenting lenders. _______________________________________ The inter-creditor agreement is aimed at the resolution of loan accounts with a size of 50 crore and above that are under the control of a group of lenders. It is part of the “Sashakt” plan approved by the government to address the problem of resolving bad loans.
1. Such an agreement may persuade banks to embark more quickly on a resolution plan for stressed assets.
2. The government hopes that the holdout problem, where the objections of a few lenders prevent a settlement between the majority lenders, will be solved through the intercreditor agreement.
3. Over the last few years, Indian banks have been forced by the Reserve Bank of India to recognise troubled assets on their books, but their resolution has remained a challenge.
4. The certainty for the banks remains a ruckus for the sector as it dissuades the plans as faced by the banking sectors which employ harmony.
5. Minority lenders who suspect they are being short-changed by other lenders can now either sell their assets at a discount to a willing buyer or buy out loans from other lenders at a premium.
- ______________________ The move by the NDA government to amend the far-sighted law aims at eroding the independence of the Information Commissions at the national level and in the States. The proposed amendments show that the Central government seeks control over the tenure, salary and allowances of the Chief Information Commissioner and Information Commissioners at the Centre, and the State Chief Information Commissioners. Such a change would eliminate the parity they currently have with the Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners and, therefore, equivalence with a judge of the Supreme Court in matters of pay, allowances and conditions of service.
1. The Centre will also fix the terms for State Information Commissioners.
2. This is an ill-advised move and should be junked without standing on prestige.
3. If at all, the law needs to be amended only to bring about full compliance by government departments and agencies that receive substantial funding from the exchequer
4. As a law that empowers the citizen, the Right to Information Act, 2005 quickly struck root in a country saddled with the colonial legacy of secretive government.
5. To extend its scope to more institutions that have an influence on official policy.
- Negotiations on the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership, among 16 Asian and Pacific Ocean countries, have entered a decisive phase. Most potential member-countries of the grouping, that comprises the 10 ASEAN members and their Free Trade Agreement partners, Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand and Republic of Korea, would like to see a “substantive agreement” on the trade deal by the end of this year. At a meeting in Singapore, which is driving the effort as the current ASEAN chair, countries which still have issues with the outline of the agreements reached so far may be told politely to step aside and allow a smaller group to go ahead with finalising the RCEP, with the option to join it at a later date. India is among the countries that will have to take a call at this point, and the government’s decision to set up a group of four ministers to advise Prime Minister Narendra Modi on the path ahead indicates the seriousness of the situation. India’s concerns with RCEP negotiations thus far are manifold, but some have been addressed. The first is the greater access Chinese goods will have to the Indian market, a problem given India’s massive trade deficit. ______________________________.
1. On the other hand, the more developed RCEP countries such as Australia and Singapore have been unwilling to accommodate India’s demands to liberalise their services.
2. To circumvent this, given that India is the one country that doesn’t have an FTA with China, the government has proposed a “differential market access” strategy for China, which others are inclined to accept.
3. A better regime and allowed freer mobility of Indian workers needs to be allocated in order to circumspect the entire scenario.
4. India must not take the easiest way out on the trade deal and walk out of talks.
5. Infact , there is little composure between the two countries that need to be resolved.
- In the week since the final draft of the National Register of Citizens in Assam was completed, the political rhetoric has got irresponsibly away from the issue at hand. Those associated with the preparation of the NRC, including its Supreme Court-appointed coordinator, Prateek Hajela, are at pains to point out that the draft is by no means the end of the road. _____________________________ Failing rehabilitation on the list at this stage, they can appeal to district magistrates, the Foreigners’ Tribunals, the Gauhati High Court and the Supreme Court. It is a long and daunting process, and a mature polity would ensure that that no man, woman or child is stranded without legal and other assistance to deal with the paperwork. Instead, a full-blown political spectacle has unfolded, with parties trivialising the complexity of the process.
1. The more than 40 lakh people whose names are missing from the draft have a graded appeals process ahead, first at NRC seva kendras.
2. Sundry BJP leaders have talked in favour of an NRC in every State, giving a threatening denominational twist to the issue.
3. In fact, Assam Chief Minister Sarbananda Sonowal, of the BJP too, has implied as much, while counselling calm.
4. Equally, the shrill politics at the national level is holding India back from facing the necessary questions.
5. And that the country is confident of finding a way to close this process without disadvantaging those who will be off the eventual list and those on it.
- ________________________. The lacunae in the Motor Vehicles Act, 1988, require to be addressed to improve road safety, ensure orderly use of vehicles and expand public transport. The Motor Vehicles (Amendment) Bill, passed by the Lok Sabha last year, seeks to do this, but it has now run into opposition in the Rajya Sabha because of its perceived shift of power from the States to the Centre. The issue is not one of legislative competence; as the subject is in the Concurrent List, Parliament can make a law defining powers available to the States. Some State governments are concerned about the new provisions, Sections 66A and 88A, which will empower the Centre to form a National Transportation Policy through a process of consultation, and not concurrence. The changes will also enable Centrally-drafted schemes to be issued for national, multi-modal and inter-State movement of goods and passengers, for rural mobility and even last-mile connectivity.
1. The passenger transport sector operating within cities and providing inter-city services has grown amorphously.
2. Since all this represents a new paradigm that would shake up the sector, several States have opposed the provisions as being anti-federal. Doing nothing, however, is no longer an option.
3. With a transparent system, professional new entrants can enter the sector.
4. India’s law governing motor vehicles and transport is archaic, lacking the provisions necessary to manage fast motorisation.
5. Major investments made in the urban metro rail systems are yielding poor results in the absence of last-mile connectivity services.
- Water is the key determinant of India’s agricultural output and the National Commission on Farmers chaired by the scientist, Professor M.S. Swaminathan, had several recommendations for its optimal use. Given that 60% of the 192 million hectares of gross sown area assessed by the Commission was found to be rainfed, an accelerated programme to harness the monsoon is vital. ______________________________________. Altered rainfall trends in terms of intensity and variations across regions pose a new challenge. Scientists contend that the alluvial soil of the northern States benefit more from slow precipitation, while the hard-rock geography of the south needs heavy showers for groundwater recharge. Yet, many districts have been receiving short, heavy spells and not steady rain.
1. A future-ready approach should therefore focus on augmented storage and greater participation of the farming community in managing the vital resource.
2. The IMD has issued a “normal” outlook for August, which is encouraging, and there are signs of fresh monsoon activity in Odisha, south Chhattisgarh, north coastal Andhra Pradesh and parts of Telangana.
3. If the forecast is accurate, and the trend of favourable climate conditions in the Indian Ocean continue, a further normal course of the season through September can be expected.
4. The rainfall patterns, with their spatial variations, have major implications for agriculture and groundwater recharge as well.
5. State programmes must take all measures to expand surface water storage, launch more minor irrigation schemes, and improve the recharge of groundwater.
- The life story of Muthuvel Karunanidhi is also a history of Tamil Nadu politics. A five-time Chief Minister, and the longest serving legislator, winning 13 terms in the Assembly and not losing even once, Karunanidhi was the engineer of many of the progressive measures adopted by the State since Independence. _______________________________. He excelled as both administrator and organiser, adopting different styles, but always displaying a clinical efficiency while interacting with bureaucrats and party workers. Although his administrative acumen was often contrasted with the welfarism of his political rival, M.G. Ramachandran, Karunanidhi was not beyond the draw of populism. Extending the Public Distribution System and increasing food subsidies were coupled with efforts at generating employment and encouraging industrial investment. Towards the latter part of his political career, he emulated his political opponents, MGR and Jayalalithaa, in handing out freebies indiscriminately to every household, rich or poor.
1. His elder son M.K. Alagiri and grand-nephew Dayanidhi Maran were rewarded with Cabinet berths in their very first terms in the Lok Sabha.
2. Karunanidhi will be remembered for being an astute politician, one with a quick wit and ready repartee
3. As the leader of the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam, an offshoot of the rationalist social reform movement, the Dravidar Kazhagam, he was an influential figure at both State and national levels, whether in or out of power.
4. He was one of the foremost opponents of the Emergency.
5.In 1976 and 1991, his governments were dismissed by the Centre, the first time citing corruption charges, and the second time citing support to the terror outfit, the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
- Setting up a ministerial group to look into the problems faced by MSMEs since India moved to the GST regime last July is a signal that the government is not brushing aside the implementation issues that still trouble smaller players. Firms with an annual turnover of less than 5 crore constitute 93% of the registered taxpayers under the GST. At its previous meeting, the Council had decided that such businesses need no longer file cumbersome returns every month, but only on a quarterly basis. _________________________. A deeper dive to understand why 1.7 million taxpayers had registered under the GST by December 2017 although their operations were below the taxable limit could also yield some pointers. The Council meeting has also, wisely, returned to a consensual approach on decisions. While a few States had reservations about the rate cuts at the last meeting, this time their concerns on a proposal to push digital payments by offering a cash-back to consumers using RuPay cards or the UPI platform have been incorporated.
1. This is marginal at best, and could be offset by stronger consumption-led growth and better tax compliance.
2. But it is in this context of revenue concerns that the Council’s dedicated focus at its latest meeting on issues facing micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) is a creditable move.
3. Moody’s Investors Service reckons that the revenue loss from the most recent tax cuts may be 0.04-0.08% of GDP annually.
4. There may be more room for the ministerial panel to recommend further easing of compliance for micro firms with turnover far below 5 crore and enhancing the 50,000 threshold for mandatory use of e-way bills to track movement of taxable goods.
5. This indicates the Centre’s keenness to retain a cooperative approach with States that has generally marked the Council’s functioning.