English Questions: Vocabulary Set 192

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Welcome to Online English Section with explanation in AffairsCloud.com. Here we are providing some difficult words from editorials , which is important and very helpful for IBPS PO/CLERK/LIC AAO/RRB & SSC CGL EXAM and other exams !!!

The Hindu: Divorce as crime: on instant triple talaq

The Centre’s proposal to make instant triple talaq an offence punishable with three-year imprisonment and a fine is an unnecessary attempt to convert a civil wrong into a criminal act. By a three-two majority, the Supreme Court has already declared, and correctly, that the practice of talaq-e-biddat, or instant divorce of a Muslim woman by uttering the word ‘talaq’ thrice, is illegal and unenforceable. While two judges in the majority said the practice was arbitrary and, therefore, unconstitutional, the third judge ruled that it was illegal because it was contrary to Islamic tenets. Its consequence is that the husband’s marital obligations remain, regardless of his intention in pronouncing it. When Parliament enacts a law to give effect to the judicial invalidation of talaq-e-biddat, it must primarily ensure protection to Muslim women against its use. Although the details are not yet available, the proposed Muslim Women (Protection of Rights on Marriage) Bill, 2017, appears to have provisions for maintenance or subsistence allowance to the wife and children in the event of triple talaq being pronounced. It seeks to preserve the woman’s entitlement to custody of her children. While these are welcome and necessary features of a law aimed to protect the rights of Muslim women against arbitrary divorce, it hardly requires iteration that the civil character of these aspects of marital law must be preserved.
Instant triple talaq is viewed as sinful and improper by a large section of the community itself. Therefore, there can be no dispute about the need to protect Muslim women against the practice. But it is also well established that criminalising something does not have any deterrent effect on its practice. That there have been 66 cases of its use after the Supreme Court verdict only underscores the need for protecting women against desertion and abandonment, but is it justified to send someone to jail? Also, the fine amount under consideration could as well be awarded as maintenance or subsistence allowance. The All-India Majlis-e-Ittehadul-Muslimeen president, Asaduddin Owaisi, has argued in a letter to the Union Law Minister that there is no need for a fresh criminal provision when existing laws, under Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code or provisions of the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, 2005, already allow the prosecution of a husband for inflicting physical or mental cruelty, emotional and economic abuse, and for deprivation of financial resources. Regardless of whether instant talaq would fall under any of these forms of cruelty or domestic violence, criminalising it risks defeating the objective of preserving the husband’s legal obligations, and the payment of maintenance. The Centre would do well to reconsider its draft and limit its scope to providing relief to women, instead of creating a new offence out of a civil matter.

1. Arbitrary – मनमाना

Meaning – based on random choice or personal whim, rather than any reason or system.

Synonyms – capricious, whimsical, random, chance, erratic, unpredictable, inconsistent, wild, hit-or-miss, haphazard, casual; unmotivated, motiveless, unreasoned, unreasonable, unsupported, irrational, illogical, groundless, unjustifiable, unjustified, wanton; discretionary, personal, subjective; rarediscretional.

Antonyms – circumspect, rational, reasonable, reasoned, supported.

Usage – an arbitrary decision from the top.

2. Consequence – परिणाम

Meaning – a result or effect, typically one that is unwelcome or unpleasant.

Synonyms – result, upshot, outcome, out-turn, sequel, effect, reaction, repercussion, reverberations, ramification, end, end result, conclusion, termination, culmination, denouement, corollary, concomitant, aftermath, fruit(s), product, produce, by-product; sequelae; informalpay-off; datedissue; archaicsuccess.

Antonyms – beginning, cause, commencement, inception, origin, rise, source, start.

Usage – abrupt withdrawal of drug treatment can have serious consequences.

3. Provisions – प्रावधानों

Meaning – the action of providing or supplying something for use.

Synonyms – supplying, supply, providing, purveying, delivery, furnishing, equipping, giving, donation, allocation, distribution, presentation.

Antonyms – forget, ignore, neglect.

Usage – new contracts for the provision of services.

4. Iteration – यात्रा

Meaning – repetition of a mathematical or computational procedure applied to the result of a previous application, typically as a means of obtaining successively closer approximations to the solution of a problem.

Synonyms – emphasis, monotony, repetition.

Antonynms – infrequency, irregularity, uncommonness.

5. Deterrent – निवारक

Meaning – a thing that discourages or is intended to discourage someone from doing something.

Synonyms – disincentive, discouragement, dissuasion, damper, brake, curb, check, restraint; obstacle, hindrance, impediment, obstruction, block, barrier, inhibition.

Antonyms – catalyst,encouragement,incentive.

Usage – cameras are a major deterrent to crime.

6. Desertion – परित्याग

Meaning – the action of deserting a person, cause, or organization.

Synonyms – abandonment, leaving, forsaking; betrayal, neglect, shunning; stranding, jilting; relinquishment, renunciation.

Antonyms – aid,assistance,help, staying.

Usage – her guilt over her desertion of her husband.

7. Prosecution – अभियोग

Meaning – the institution and conducting of legal proceedings against someone in respect of a criminal charge.

Synonyms – accomplishment, achievement, execution, performance, pursuance, pursuit, undertaking.

Antonyms – acquittal.

Usage – the organizers are facing prosecution for noise nuisance.

8. Inflicting – पहुंचाई

Meaning – cause (something unpleasant or painful) to be suffered by someone or something.

Synonyms – administer to, deal out to, mete out to, serve out to, deliver to, apply to; lay, impose, exact, wreak; cause to, give to.

Antonyms – deny, frustrate, refuse, withhold.

Usage – they inflicted serious injuries on three other men.

9. Obligations – दायित्वों

Meaning – an act or course of action to which a person is morally or legally bound; a duty or commitment.

Synonyms – duty, commitment, responsibility, moral imperative; function, task, job, chore, assignment, commission, business, burden, charge, onus, liability, accountability, requirement, debt, engagement; datedoffice; archaicdevoir; literarytrust.

Antonyms – disloyalty, enmity, sedition, treachery, treason.

Usage – I have an obligation to look after her.

10. Offence – अपमान

Meaning – a breach of a law or rule; an illegal act.

Synonyms – crime, illegal/unlawful act, misdemeanour, breach/violation/infraction of the law, felony, wrongdoing, wrong, act of misconduct, misdeed, delinquency, peccadillo, sin, transgression, infringement, act of dereliction, shortcoming, fault, lapse.

Antonyms – defense, defence, defending team.

Usage – the new offence of obtaining property by deception.