English Questions: Vocabulary Set 263
some difficult words from editorials , which is important and very helpful for IBPS PO/CLERK/LIC AAO/RRB & SSC CGL EXAM and other exams !!!
The United States under Donald Trump may not be a huge fan of free trade across borders, but that’s not stopping other countries from embracing it. On Thursday, 11 Asia-Pacific countries, including Japan, Australia and Canada, signed the Comprehensive and Progressive Agreement for Trans-Pacific Partnership in Chile. The CPTPP is, in effect, the original Trans-Pacific Partnership struck during the Barack Obama presidency minus the U.S. On the campaign trail, Mr. Trump had promised to pull the U.S. out of the TPP, and went on to do precisely that within weeks of assuming office. Interestingly, the CPTPP comes soon after the U.S. had made clear its plan to impose tariffs on the import of aluminium and steel in an attempt to protect domestic manufacturers. The countries signing the agreement, which account for more than 13% of the world economy, have agreed to bring down tariffs on cross-border trade by as much as 98% after domestic ratification. More countries are expected to sign the CPTPP in the future, and there is hope that a post-Trump U.S. may join the bloc. But even in the absence of the world’s largest economy, countries that are currently part of the deal will only gain from any reduction in the costs imposed on trade. This will leave the world, which has largely been moving towards increasing free trade even as the U.S. has turned inwards, better off than without the deal.
The CPTPP, as it looks to expand influence by adding other countries into its fold, will need to address other problems as well. One of the points of criticism of the TPP, even in its original form as a 12-member agreement, was the alleged influence of special interests in dictating its broad framework. Mr. Trump, in fact, smartly capitalised on these sentiments to attack and then pull out of the agreement last year. The TPP text, which has in large part been incorporated into the new deal, had also been flayed for mandating labour and other regulations that increase the bureaucratic burden on businesses. Many have cited the size of the agreement, which runs into several chapters and thousands of pages, to contend that the benefits from tariff reductions may be cancelled out by the massive increase in regulatory requirements. While there may be no hard and fast rule to gauge the net benefit of the agreement, addressing these concerns will only strengthen the chances of more countries joining it. A simpler trade agreement can also help the cause of transparency and lower the chances of lobbying by special interests in the future. Last but not least, amid palpable fears of a global trade war, the survival of a free trade agreement despite the sudden pullout of the U.S. offers some respite to the supporters of free trade.
1. Embracing (verb) : आलिंगन
Meaning : hold (someone) closely in one’s arms, especially as a sign of affection.
Synonyms : hug, take/hold in one’s arms, hold, cuddle, clasp to one’s bosom, clasp, squeeze, clutch, seize, grab; nuzzle, caress; enfold, enclasp, encircle, enclose, envelop, entwine oneself around; informalcanoodle.
Antonyms : accept, ascertain, be afraid, be inclined to think, conclude, conjecture, consider.
Usage : Aunt Sophie embraced her warmly.
2. Assuming (conjunction) : यह सोचते हैं
Meaning : used for the purpose of argument to indicate a premise on which a statement can be based.
Synonyms : presume, suppose, take it, take for granted, take as read, take it as given, presuppose, conjecture, surmise, conclude.
Antonyms : doubt, not believe.
Usage : assuming that the treaty is ratified, what is its relevance?
3. Impose (verb) : थोपना
Meaning : force (an unwelcome decision or ruling) on someone.
Synonyms : foist, force, thrust, inflict, obtrude, press, urge.
Antonyms : deny, frustrate, refuse, withhold.
Usage : the decision was theirs and was not imposed on them by others.
4. Ratification (Noun) : अनुममर्थन
Meaning : the action of signing or giving formal consent to a treaty, contract, or agreement, making it officially valid.
Synonyms : instant gratification.
Antonyms : reality principle.
Usage : ratification of the treaty raised problems in several member states.
5. Reduction (noun) : कमी
Meaning : the action or fact of making something smaller or less in amount, degree, or size.
Synonyms : depletion, cut, cutting, cutback, scaling down, trimming, slimming (down), pruning, axing, chopping, curtailment, limiting.
Antonyms : enlargement, increase.
Usage : the closure of those offices led to a reduction in staff.
6. Alleged (adjective) : कथित तौर पर
Meaning : said, without proof, to have taken place or to have a specified illegal or undesirable quality.
Synonyms : supposed, so-called, claimed, professed, purported, ostensible, apparent, putative, unproven, rumoured, reputed, presumed, assumed, reported, declared, stated, avowed, described.
Antonyms : certain, definite, sure.
Usage : the place where the alleged offences were committed.
7. Dictating (verb) : हुक्म
Meaning : state or order authoritatively.
Synonyms : give orders to, order about/around, boss (about/around), impose one’s will on, lord it over, bully, domineer, dominate, tyrannize, oppress, ride roughshod over, control, pressurize.
Antonyms : request.
Usage : my daughter is always dictating to her friends.
8. Massive (adjective) : बड़ा
Meaning : large and heavy or solid.
Synonyms : huge, enormous, gigantic, very big, very large, great, giant, colossal, mammoth, vast, immense, tremendous, mighty, stupendous, monumental, epic, prodigious, mountainous, monstrous, titanic, towering, elephantine, king-sized, king-size, gargantuan.
Antonyms : little, miniature, small, tiny.
Usage : these burial chambers were massive structures.
9. Pull out (phrasal verb) : बाहर खींचें
Meaning : withdraw from an undertaking.
Synonyms : withdraw, resign, leave, retire, step down, get out, quit, back out, bow out.
Antonyms : continue, persevere, start.
Usage : one of their star players has pulled out with stomach trouble.
10. Respite (Noun) : मोहलत
Meaning : a short period of rest or relief from something difficult or unpleasant.
Synonyms : rest, break, breathing space, interval, intermission, interlude, recess, lull, pause, time out, hiatus, halt, stop, stoppage, cessation, discontinuation, standstill; relief, relaxation, repose; informalbreather, let-up.
Antonyms : continuation.
Usage : the refugee encampments will provide some respite from the suffering.