Geography: Types Of Vegetations

Climate can be classified on the basis of temperature, precipitation, evaporation and their seasonal characteristics. The classification scheme of W. Koppen is the most popular system and universally accepted. A classification of the world climatic types is given ahead:

  1. Tropical Rain Forest/Equatorial Forest Type Extent:
  • 5°N to 5°S; Amazon Basin, ZaireBasin, Malaysia, Indonesia.
  • Average daily temperature: 25°C throughout the year
  • Rainfall: Convectional, throughout the year. No dry season.
  • Annual rainfall: 150 to 200 cm.
  • Characteristics: Hot wet condition throughout the year favours rich vegetation.
  1. Tropical Grassland/Savanna Type Extent:
  • 5°N to 15°N & 5°S to 15°S; Africa,East & central S. America, Transitional
  • zone between Monsoon and desert climates of Australia.
  • Monthly mean temperature: 32°C in summer and 20°C in winter.
  • Annual rainfall: 50 to 100 cm.
  • Characteristics:Distinct dry season in winter. Rainfall is in summer owing to convectional ascent of air. They have tropical grassland with scattered trees. Some examples are:
  • Llanos: Colombian Highland.
  • Campos: SE highland of Brazil,
  • Granchaco: Argentina & Uruguay.
  • Savanna: Australia and Africa.
  1. Tropical Monsoon Type
  • Extent: South-east and East Asia, N. Australia, India, Myanmar, Thailand and South China.
  • Annual rainfall may exceed 150 cm. along the coast
  • Characteristics:Strongly developed dry season and the rainfall of the driest mouth is less than 6 cm. Great contrast in temperature between summer and winter.
  1. Tropical Deserts Extent:
  • Western margin of the continent, e. g. , Colorado Desert, Mexican, Sahara & Kalahari Desert etc.
  1. Mid-Latitude/Temperate Deserts
  • It extended to the Mongolia, Gobi, Patagonia,Parts of Soviet, Central CIS.
  • Average annual temperature: above 18°C
  • Charactereristic:Winter is colder because of its interior location. Some are intermountain deserts.
  1. Mild-Humid Climate with a Dry Winter/ China Type
  • Extent:Along the eastern margin of the continent in sub-tropical belt; 25°-35° in both the hemispheres; Central China, S.E.-USA, South Bengal; Eastern Argentina, S.E.-Africa, S.E.-Australia, S-Brazil, S-Japan.
  1. Mid-Humid Climate with Dry Summer/ Mediterranean Type
  • Extent: 30° to 45° L on western side of the continent in both hemispheres; Around the Mediterranean sea, in S. Europe, N. Africa,California coast, Central Chile etc.
  1. Snowy Forest Climate with moist Winter/ Taiga
  • Extent: beyond 60° N in Europe, Asia and N. America.
  • Annual rainfall: 30 to 40 cm; both in winter and summer; No dry season.
  1. Tundra Climate
  • Extent: Arctic Ocean coast, Iceland, Greenland
  • Mean temperature of the warmest month:0°C to 10°C
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