# Reasoning Questions: Statement and Assumptions (High level) Set 2

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Statement and Assumptions

Directions: Study the following information and answer the given questions.

1. Statement: Mexico’s ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), which has dominated its politics for the better part of a century, seems at risk of a defeat in the July 1 election.
Conclusions:
I. The PRI has won most of the elections held in Mexico in the last 100 years.
II. The PRI will no longer remain the reigning party in Mexico post July.
III. The leaders of PRI seemed to have irked the sentiments of the common people in Mexico.
1) Only I follow
2) Only II follow
3) Both I and II follow
4) Both II and III follow
5) Both I and III follow
Answer – 1) Only I follow
Explanation:
Only conclusion I follows from the given statement. We have been told that the PRI has dominated Mexico’s politics for the better part of a century, from which we can easily conclude that they’ve won most of the elections that have been held in Mexico in the last 100 years. Conclusion II does not follow because we do not know for certain of the PRI is going to lose in the coming elections. The statement tells us that the ruling party seems to be at a risk of defeat. Conclusion II does not follow as we do not know the reasons for assuming that the ruling party might not win the upcoming elections.
2. Statement: Overwhelmed with grief and anger, families have been returning to what is left of their homes in the Old City of Mosul, following its liberation from Isis, the terrorist organization.
Assumptions:
I. The terrorist organization, Isis, destroyed the Old City of Mosul before they left.
II. Most of the residents of Mosul had left/ been driven away when Isis took over their city.
III. None of the residents of Mosul supported Isis, which is why they left the city.
1) If only assumption I is implicit.
2) If only assumption II is implicit.
3) If only assumption III is implicit.
4) If both I and II are implicit.
5) If none of the assumption is implicit.
Answer – 4) If both I and II are implicit.
Explanation:
Both assumptions I and II are valid. The statement says that people are returning to “what is left of their homes”, from which we can assume that their homes were almost destroyed. Similarly, because the families are returning to the city, we can assume that they were driven away or left when Isis took over their city. However, assumption III is not valid as we cannot assume if all of the residents had left and none of them supported Isis from the given statement.
3. Statement: Digital payment systems have ballooned in popularity in India since the government scrapped large-value banknotes in 2016.
Assumptions:
I. People find it easier to pay via electronic methods instead of by cash these days.
II. The common people have realised the convenience of digital payments, which is why it gained popularity.
III. Digital payments methods have become popular in India because of good advertising.
1) Only I follow
2) Only II follow
3) Both I and II follow
4) Both II and III follow
5) Both I and III follow
Answer – 3) Both I and II follow
Explanation:
Both inferences I and II follow. The given statement says that digital payments have grown in popularity since the government scrapped large value banknotes more than a year ago. We can easily infer that people must have found the new mode of payment easy and convenient, which is why they stuck to this method even after more than a year.
4. Statement:
A Government advertisement in public interest- “For a child’s better mental health, admit him/her to a school only after five years of age.”
Assumptions:
I. A child cannot learn before he/she turns five.
II. Some school admit children who are below five years of age.
1) If only assumption I is implicit.
2) If only assumption II is implicit.
3) If either I or II is implicit.
4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
5) If both I and II are implicit.
Answer – 2) If only assumption II is implicit.
Explanation:
A child can learn before he/she turns five. So, assumption I is not implicit.
So, assumption II is implicit.
5. Statement: Should students be allowed to work while they are studying?
Arguments:
I. Yes. The economic background if every individual does not allow them to pursue education, such permission therefore makes it feasible to fulfill one’s dream.
II. Yes. Work play an important role in making a person self sufficient. Besides, this practical knowledge becomes necessary to make studies meaningful.
1) If only argument I is implicit.
2) If only argument II is implicit.
3) If either I or II is implicit.
4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
5) If both I and II are implicit.
Answer – 4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
Explanation:
From argument I, it concludes that if a person is not able to pursue their education then by working in the real world helps them to make their dream come true.
From argument II, working also increases the practical knowledge of the person and it makes the studies meaningful and makes a man self sufficient.
Hence, both argument I and II are strong.
6. Statement:
Sea level rise driven by climate change is set to pose an existential crisis to many US coastal communities, with new research finding that as many as 311,000 homes face being flooded every two weeks within the next 30 years.
Inferences:
I. This research report will potentially inflict a huge financial and emotional toll on all those Americans who live in the properties at risk of having their basements, backyards, garages or living rooms inundated every other week.
II. Greenhouse gas emissions, the main cause of rising sea levels, need to severely curtailed with immediate effect.
1) If only assumption I is inferred.
2) If only assumption II is inferred.
3) If either I or II is inferred.
4) If neither I nor II is inferred.
5) If both I and II are inferred.
Answer – 5) If both I and II are inferred.
Explanation:
Both the inferences can be correctly inferred. The given statement says that due to climate changes sea levels are rising and because of this, more than three hundred thousand homes will get flooded every two weeks in the next 30 years. I is an obvious deduction – people who live near the coastlines will be financially and emotionally affected. And II can also be clearly inferred – to combat this situation, greenhouse gas emissions that are the main cause of rising sea levels, need to be curtailed with immediate effect.
7. Statement:
In several Indian schools, the lunch packages on offer at the canteens have become healthier and cheaper. However, there seems to be no decrease in instances of child obesity with the canteens offering aerated drinks and deep fried snacks too.
Assumptions:
I. Indian schools look at the sales of these drinks and snacks for extra income.
II. School canteens do not serve lunches that are lucrative to the children.
1) If only assumption I is implicit.
2) If only assumption II is implicit.
3) If either I or II is implicit.
4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
5) If both I and II are implicit.
Answer – 1) If only assumption I is implicit.
Explanation:
Option I best explains the situation – on the one hand the school has to ensure a nutritious diet for the kids and on the other they need some extra funds to function. Option II does not explain the paradox that is presented.
8. Statement: A court can convict an accused solely on the basis of a dying declaration but such a declaration should be free from any doubt and the victim making the statement should be mentally fit – issued by supreme court.
Assumptions:
I. One who is not mentally fit always makes statement untrustworthy in nature.
II. Declaration made by the dying person is likely to be true.
III. It is possible to distinguish whether a declaration is doubtful or not.
1) Only I is implicit
2) Both I and II are implicit
3) Both II and III are implicit
4) Only III is implicit
5) None of these
Answer – 3) Both II and III are implicit
Explanation:
Assumption I:
Statement I is not implicit as it is not mentioned in the statement that persons who are not mentally fit makes untrustworthy statements
Assumption II:
Statement II is implicit because court can convict only if the declaration made by the dying person is true.
Assumption III:
Statement III is also implicit as declaration made by the person should be distinguishable that declaration is doubtful or not.
9. The chairman of a car company announced in a meeting that all trials of its first product, a new model of car ‘X’ are over and the company is planning to launch the car in the market after some months.
Which of the following will strengthen the chairman’s decision?
I. Material management and other resources will have to be in fine tune to maintain production schedule.
II. Company should also make plans for products other than car.
III. The network of dealers must be finalized and all legal, financial and other matters in this regard should be finalized at the earliest.
1) Only I
2) Only II
3) Both I and III
4) All three
5) None of these
Answer – 3) Both I and III
Explanation:
From statement I:
Materials and other resources are present in abundant in future to meet the requirements of the products and work will be done according to the schedule. Hence, statement I strengthen the chairman’s decision.
From statement II:
This statement does not deal with the idea of the given statement.
From statement III:
Legal, financial and other aspects should be finalized at the earliest so that work will be done according to the schedule.
Hence, statement III strengthens the chairman’s decision.
Hence both statements I and III are implicit.
10. Statement: The government of India has urged the State governments to create more job opportunities for women.
Assumption:
I. Women have lesser job opportunities than men in the states.
II. State governments cannot create more jobs for women.
1) If only assumption I is implicit.
2) If only assumption II is implicit.
3) If either I or II is implicit.
4) If neither I nor II is implicit.
5) If both I and II are implicit.