Reasoning Questions: Statements & Arguments Set 16

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Statements & Arguments

Directions: Study the following information and answer the given questions.

  1. Statement: Should there be a cap on drawing ground water for irrigation purposes in India?
    Arguments:
    I. No, irrigation is of prime importance for food production in India and it is heavily dependent on groundwater in many parts of the country.
    II. Yes, water tables have gone down to alarmingly low levels in some parts of the country where irrigation is dependent on groundwater, which may lead to serious environmental consequences.
    III. Yes, India just cannot afford to draw ground water any further as the International agencies have cautioned India against it.
    1) Both I and II are strong
    2) Both II and III are strong
    3) Both I and III are strong
    4) All I, II and III are strong
    5) None of these
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 1)
    Explanation :
    Argument I:
    Argument I is strong because irrigation is importance for food production in India which is very important for every human being.
    Argument II:
    Argument II is strong because irrigation is mainly dependent on ground water and it reduces on a alarming rate which lead to various problems including shortage of water in some parts of the country.
    Argument III:
    Argument III is not strong because there is no relation of international agencies with the main statement.
    Hence, both I and II are strong.
  2. The difficulty with the proposed high-speed train line is that a used plane can be bought for one-third the price of the train line, and the plane, which is just as fast, can fly anywhere. The train would be a fixed linear system, and we live in a world that is spreading out in all directions and in which consumers choose the free-wheel systems (cars, buses, aircraft), which do not have fixed routes. Thus a sufficient market for the train will not exist.
    Which of the following, if true, most severely weakens the argument presented above?
    1) Cars, buses, and planes require the efforts of drivers and pilots to guide them, whereas the train will be guided mechanically.
    2) Cars and buses are not nearly as fast as the high-speed train will be.
    3) Planes are not a free-wheel system because they can fly only between airports, which are less convenient for consumers than the high-speed train’s stations would be.
    4) The high-speed train line cannot use currently underutilized train stations in large cities.
    5) For long trips, most people prefer to fly rather than to take ground-level transportation.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation :
    1) The method of guidance is irrelevant to the argument about freewheel versus fixed linear systems 2) The passage compares the speed and system models of airplanes and high-speed trains. The argument does not incorporate buses and cars, which are included only to give examples of free-wheel system, and so this statement is irrelevant.
    3) This statement properly identifies the weakness in the argument: Airplanes are not truly a free-wheel system because they are restricted to travelling between airports. Additionally airports tend to be less conveniently located than train terminals, which have further potential to weaken the argument in favour of airplanes.
    4) The inability of high-speed trains to use some convenient train stations strengthens, rather than weakens, the argument in favour of airplanes.
    5) Consumer preference for air travel over ground travel on long trips strengthens, rather than weakens, the argument in favour of airplanes.
  3. Statement: Is common currency a necessary ingredient for Europe’s growth?
    Arguments:
    I. Yes. A common currency will enable entire Europe to market itself as one.
    II. No. Similar experiments by Latin America countries have not affected their economies.
    1) If only argument I is strong
    2) If only argument II is strong
    3) If either I or II is strong
    4) If neither I nor II is strong
    5) If both I and II are strong
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation :
    Europe marketing itself as one will definitely contribute towards Europe’s growth cannot be ascertained. Also, if similar experiments were not successful in other countries then it does not mean that they will not work in Europe as well. So, none of the argument is strong.
  4. Releasing the ‘Road Accidents in India – 2016’ report, the Road Transport and Highways Minister said more than 400 people lost their lives daily on roads in road accidents at night.
    Which of the following could be the appropriate cause of the death in road accidents at night?
    1) Increase in population lead to more number of accidents.
    2) Many people prefer to travel in night rather than in day.
    3) Lack of proper lightning arrangement and undignified installation of traffic signals at many places.
    4) Traffic rules are stricter in day-time to avoid traffic congestion problem.
    5) Traffic violation is not a punishable offence in India.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation :
    1) This can’t be the reason behind more number of accidents at night as population increase could not lead to more number of accidents during night.
    2) This could not be the appropriate reason as preference does not matter too much for the reason of death during night time.
    3) This could be the major cause behind more number of accidents at night as improper installation of traffic signal and lightning arrangement is the major reason behind it.
    4) This could not be the major cause of the given statement as the traffic rules are same in both day and night time also.
    5) This could not be the major cause behind more number of accidents at night as Traffic violation is a punishable offence in India.
  5. Statement: Should luxury hotels be banned in India?
    Arguments:
    I. Yes. They are the places from where international criminals operate.
    II. No. Affluent foreign tourists will not have a place to stay.
    1) If only argument I is strong
    2) If only argument II is strong
    3) If either I or II is strong
    4) If neither I nor II is strong
    5) If both I and II are strong
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation :
    International criminals can operate from various other places also. So, banning luxury hotels is not the solution of this problem. Hence, argument I is weak. Comfort of foreign tourists is not a strong enough argument for banning the luxury hotels.
    Hence, neither I nor II argument is strong.
  6. Television is no longer the medium of entertainment at present. Mobile has taken the place of it among the youngsters as they used to spend most of their time on it.
    Which of the following can be hypothesized from the given statement?
    1) Television is still most popular among kids.
    2) People love to play games at mobile phone instead of involving in outdoor activities.
    3) Mobile has become the addiction for the younger generation.
    4) The older generation is not comfortable in using mobile phone for their entertainment.
    5) A proper treatment is required by a doctor to get rid of the addiction of the mobile phone.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation :
    1) This can’t be hypothesized from the given statement because preference in the sense of popularity has been given to mobile instead of T.V.
    2) This can’t be hypothesized from the given statement because there is direct comparison between T.V and mobile phone in statement. There is nothing mentioned about outdoor activities in the statement.
    3) This can be hypothesized from the given statement as it is mentioned in the given statement that youngsters spend most of their time on mobile phones.
    4) This can’t be hypothesized from the given statement because nothing is mentioned about that older generation is comfortable in using mobile phones or not.
    5) This can’t be hypothesized from the given statement because it is a course of action, it cannot be an assumption.
  7. Mosquito bites can be more than just annoying and itchy. They can make you really sick. Protect yourself and your family from mosquitoes during travelling. Because dangerous diseases like Zika, dengue, and chikungunya are spread by mosquitoes.
    Which of the following can be assumed from the given statement?
    1) Mosquitoes are more dangerous than any other animals in the world.
    2) There is no treatment of diseases like Zika, dengue, and chikungunya that are spread by mosquitoes.
    3) Forty percent of the world’s population lives in an area at risk for dengue spread by mosquito and an estimated 390 million people per year are infected with the viruses.
    4) There are more chances to get infected from mosquitoes while travelling rather than staying at home.
    5) All travelers are suffering from diseases like Zika, dengue, and chikungunya spread by mosquitoes.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation :
    1) This can’t be assumed from the given statement because there is no any comparison between mosquitoes and other animals in the statement.
    2) This can’t be assumed from the given statement because Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya are considered as dangerous diseases but is not said anything about treatment of these diseases.
    3) This can’t be assumed from the given statement there is no discussion about any states in the statement.
    4) This can be assumed from the given statement as it is mentioned in the given statement that Protect yourself and your family from mosquitoes during travelling so it can be assumed that there are more chances to get infected from mosquitoes while travelling.
    5) This can’t be assumed from the given statement because there is only a suggestion that protect yourself and your family from mosquitoes during traveling, it does not mean all travelers are suffering from mentioned diseases.
  8. In an attempt to check its increasing pollution, Litter City has introduced a levy of Rs. 100 on every private car entering the city. The administration argues that the imposition of this levy, in addition of the existing toll at the entrance of the city, will switch people from using their cars to using the public transport.
    Which of the following, if true, provides the best evidence that the city administration’s argument is flawed?
    1) The city administration is already facing the ire of taxi drivers whose demand for a rate hike was turned down by the administration.
    2) A recent survey has shown that people living in Litter city have fewer cars than those in the neighboring clean city.
    3) Hardly 10% of the regular bus passengers own their own cars.
    4) The recent hike in the toll for cars already makes it more expensive for people to take a private car into the city than travel in a public transport.
    5) Both (1) and (4)
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 4)
    Explanation :
    Litter city has introduced a levy of Rs.100 on private cars entering the city. This levy is in addition to the toll already being levied. In the passage, the administration argues that this new levy will force people from not using their cars and to take public transport. The administration thinks that the decisive issue for car owners is saving money. If car owners are already paying more as toll charges than they would pay in bus fares, money is not the reason for their using the car. That means car owners are unlikely to change their way of commuting to save money. So, option (4) is the right answer. Taxi drivers’ demand for rate hike is irrelevant to the argument, so (1) is ruled out. Option (2) is inapt because a comparison with the neighboring city doesn’t point to a flaw in the argument. Present bus riders are irrelevant to the City’s plan. So (3) is also inapt.
  9. Statement– India is buying over 1,000 new planes. However unprecedented expansion will place immense pressure on the aviation system. The industry currently appears to be underestimating the challenges ahead.
    Which of the following could be the reason for the concerns about “challenges ahead” in the above statement?
    i) The buying frenzy, led by budget airlines like Spice jet and Indigo, is not without reason. Around 220 million Indians flew last year — an annual increase of 20%.
    ii) The country is on track to overtake the U.K. as the world’s third-largest aviation market by 2026. iii) Only 75 out of 400 airports are currently operational in India and even the biggest hubs like Mumbai, New Delhi and Chennai are bursting at the seams.
    1) Only (i)
    2) Both (i) and (ii)
    3) Only (iii)
    4) Both (ii) and (iii)
    5) None of these
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation :
    Statement (i) and (ii) states a fact that supports this buying frenzy being carried out by aviation companies. Whereas (iii) clearly mentions that lack of infrastructure will be a major challenge that aviation companies might have to face in future.
  10. Education has been a problem in our country and lack of it has been blamed for all sorts of evil for hundreds of years. Half the country does not even today have access to proper education, and only a small fraction can go to university. Which of the following substantiates the given statement?
    1) Our education system today encourages excellence – in students, in teachers, throughout the system.
    2) Our new education system creates entrepreneurs, innovators, artists, scientists, thinkers and writers who can establish the foundation of a knowledge based economy.
    3) India needs to embrace internet and technology if it has to teach all of its huge population, the majority of which is located in remote villages.
    4) Our education system is geared towards teaching and testing knowledge at every level as opposed to teaching skills.
    5) We may have the most number of engineering graduates in the world that has been translated into much technological innovation here.
    Answer & Explanation
    Answer – 3)
    Explanation :
    For ( 1) – This statement does not substantiates the given statement as it mentioned that Our education system today encourages excellence whereas given statement states that Education has been a problem in our country.
    For (2) – This statement does not substantiates the given statement because it mentioned that Our new education system creates entrepreneurs and foundation of a knowledge based economy.
    For (3) – This statement substantiates the given statement as it mentioned that India needs internet and technology if it has to teach all population in remote villages which is also mentioned in the given statement that Half the country does not even today have access to proper education, and only a small fraction can go to university.
    For (4) – This statement does not substantiates the given statement because it mentioned that Our education system is geared towards teaching and testing knowledge whereas given statement states that Education has been a problem in our country.
    For (5) – This statement does not substantiates the given statement because it mentioned that We may have the most number of engineering graduates in the world whereas given statement states that Half the country does not even today have access to proper education, and only a small fraction can go to university.